What is Bipolar Disorder? Causes and How to Overcome

Bipolar Disorder is a change in mood that is extreme in a person. At one time a person has a peak emotional state and is very happy or called manic, but at other times it turns into the opposite, only hypomanic and even very depressed. For this reason, bipolar disorder is also known as "manic depression".

Both of these moods can fluctuate uncontrollably. Mood swings like this can occur several times a year, even if the condition is severe it can occur several times a week.


Manic conditions or peaking emotions are not always marked by people who are always angry. In this case it is said to be manic, which is not only in the form of anger, but also excessive expression. Examples of some of the symptoms of people experiencing a manic episode include:

  • Feeling very happy or euphoric
  • Greatly increased self-confidence
  • Have a lot of energy
  • Doing activities that are much more or more active than usual
  • Very short sleep time
  • Talking really fast about a lot of different things
  • Easily angry and offended
  • Has a very fast and fickle mind
  • Feeling able to do many things at the same time
  • Doing things that are high risk, such as wasting money, free sex, doing other extreme things outside of daily habits

Meanwhile, someone who is experiencing a depressed mood can be identified mainly from his hobby activities. Hobbies that used to be done, no longer done or lost interest at all. In addition, the following symptoms may also be encountered:

  • Feeling very sad, empty, or hopeless
  • Not excited or have no energy
  • Don't want to do any activity
  • Have sleep disorders , can sleep too little or even too long
  • Feeling unable to enjoy anything
  • Feeling anxious
  • Difficult to concentrate
  • Often forget
  • Feeling weak all the time
  • It's easy to cry excessively for no good reason
  • Lock yourself in the room
  • Often think about death or suicidal thoughts

Bipolar disorder can also cause mood swings that are less extreme. For example, some cases of bipolar disorder with hypomanic episodes where the symptoms are milder than manic. In a hypomanic episode, a person can feel very good, very productive and everything is going well, no mistakes. However, family and people around them can feel a change in mood or change in activity from people with bipolar disorder.

Hypomanic episodes usually last only 4 days, whereas manic episodes can last as little as 1 week. Without proper treatment, people with hypomanic disorders can develop into mania.

Bipolar disorder is a condition purely due to mental disorders , not due to other causes such as side effects of alcohol use, drugs, or the influence of certain diseases.

Bipolar disorder causes and risk factors

The occurrence of bipolar disorder is believed not only caused by one factor, but many factors that can increase the risk of bipolar disorder, including:

Brain structure and function

Mechanisms of brain work in people with bipolar disorder with normal people or with other mental disorders, have their own characteristics. It is important to know to determine the appropriate treatment for each mental disorder.


There is a tendency that bipolar disorder is influenced by genetic factors, but not always. If there are 2 identical twins , one baby has bipolar disorder, then the other baby will not necessarily have bipolar disorder even though they have the same genetics.


Children who have a family history, parent or sibling with bipolar disorder are more likely to have bipolar disorder as well.


People with bipolar disorder are more likely to come to the doctor during a depressive episode, rather than in a hypomanic or manic state. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a complete anamnesis regarding the patient's life so that there is no misdiagnosis.

Correct diagnosis and therapy can help people with bipolar disorder to have a better life and stay productive. Doctors must continue to examine the patient's entire body condition to rule out the possibility of interference due to other diseases. If there are no other diseases, then a definite diagnosis and appropriate treatment must be carried out by a psychiatrist.

Bipolar disorder treatment

Bipolar disorder is a psychological disorder that is disturbing and long-term. However, the patient can control his mood through a good treatment plan. Bipolar disorder can be controlled using medication and counseling services ( psychotherapy ).

Some types of drugs that can be used to treat bipolar disorder are:

  • Mood stabilizer or sedative
  • Anti- psychotic drugs
  • Anti- depressant Obat
  • Sleeping pills

Every drug has side effects. Therefore, the use of these drugs should not be arbitrary, must be based on the advice and supervision of a doctor. Stopping taking the drug suddenly is also not recommended because it can cause more severe bipolar symptoms.


The combination of psychotherapy and the use of drugs can be an effective treatment for bipolar disorder. Psychotherapy can be carried out on patients and their families. The things that can be provided in psychotherapy can be in the form of support, information, and also guidance for dealing with bipolar disorder.

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